弄潮杯2018年度学奖揭晓 王蒙刘心麦家等获奖

时间:2020-05-25 07:11:05 作者:258369147114 热度:1199℃

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(中)(国)(科)(学)(家)(发)(现)(矿)(物)(可)(进)(行)(“)(光)(合)(作)(用)(”)----

( )( )(我)(国)(科)(学)(家)(发)(现)(矿)(物)(可)(进)(行)(“)(光)(合)(作)(用)(”)

( )( )(新)(华)(社)(北)(京)5(月)7(日)(电)((魏)(梦)(佳)(、)(赵)(旭))(众)(所)(周)(知)(,)(有)(机)(生)(物)(可)(进)(行)(光)(合)(作)(用)(,)(将)(太)(阳)(能)(转)(化)(为)(生)(物)(化)(学)(能)(。)(近)(期)(北)(京)(大)(学)(课)(题)(组)(公)(布)(的)(一)(项)(最)(新)(研)(究)(成)(果)(显)(示)(,)(暴)(露)(在)(阳)(光)(下)(的)(地)(表)(无)(机)(矿)(物)(也)(可)(吸)(收)(并)(转)(化)(太)(阳)(能)(,)(从)(而)(发)(生)(矿)(物)(的)(“)(光)(合)(作)(用)(”)(。)(这)(项)(研)(究)(成)(果)(近)(日)(在)(《)(美)(国)(科)(学)(院)(院)(刊)(》)(PNAS)(上)(全)(文)(在)(线)(发)(表)(。)

( )( )(国)(际)(矿)(物)(学)(协)(会)(第)(一)(副)(主)(席)(、)(北)(京)(大)(学)(地)(球)(与)(空)(间)(科)(学)(学)(院)(教)(授)(鲁)(安)(怀)(介)(绍)(,)(研)(究)(团)(队)(通)(过)(对)(我)(国)(北)(方)(戈)(壁)(、)(沙)(漠)(以)(及)(南)(方)(喀)(斯)(特)(和)(红)(壤)(等)(典)(型)(地)(貌)(中)(岩)(石)(和)(土)(壤)(样)(品)(的)(系)(统)(观)(测)(分)(析)(,)(发)(现)(直)(接)(暴)(露)(在)(太)(阳)(光)(下)(的)(岩)(石)(和)(土)(壤)(颗)(粒)(体)(表)(面)(普)(遍)(被)(一)(层)(黑)(色)(的)(“)(矿)(物)(膜)(”)(所)(覆)(盖)(。)(“)(矿)(物)(膜)(”)(的)(厚)(度)(从)(数)(十)(纳)(米)(到)(上)(百)(微)(米)(不)(等)(,)(富)(含)(水)(钠)(锰)(矿)(、)(针)(铁)(矿)(、)(赤)(铁)(矿)(等)(天)(然)(半)(导)(体)(矿)(物)(,)(呈)(现)(出)(“)(膜)(”)(状)(结)(构)(构)(造)(特)(征)(。)

( )( )(“)(我)(们)(测)(定)(这)(些)(地)(表)(岩)(石)(和)(土)(壤)(样)(品)(的)(光)(电)(效)(应)(,)(发)(现)(这)(些)(‘)(矿)(物)(膜)(’)(可)(以)(把)(太)(阳)(光)(子)(转)(化)(为)(光)(电)(子)(,)(产)(生)(灵)(敏)(、)(显)(著)(、)(持)(续)(的)(光)(电)(流)(信)(号)(,)(证)(实)(无)(机)(矿)(物)(可)(吸)(收)(并)(转)(化)(太)(阳)(能)(,)(即)(太)(阳)(光)(一)(直)(作)(用)(于)(地)(表)(矿)(物)(,)(发)(生)(‘)(矿)(物)(光)(合)(作)(用)(’)(。)(”)(鲁)(安)(怀)(说)(。)

( )( )(研)(究)(发)(现)(,)(“)(矿)(物)(膜)(”)(产)(出)(特)(征)(和)(发)(育)(状)(况)(与)(日)(照)(关)(系)(极)(为)(密)(切)(,)(如)(富)(锰)(矿)(物)(仅)(在)(日)(光)(照)(射)(下)(的)(红)(壤)(矿)(物)(颗)(粒)(、)(喀)(斯)(特)(和)(戈)(壁)(岩)(石)(正)(面)(“)(矿)(物)(膜)(”)(中)(出)(现)(。)(在)(全)(球)(陆)(地)(系)(统)(中)(,)(富)(锰)(“)(矿)(物)(膜)(”)(的)(分)(布)(恰)(与)(太)(阳)(光)(的)(强)(辐)(射)(区)(域)(相)(吻)(合)(。)

( )( )(鲁)(安)(怀)(认)(为)(,)(伴)(随)(着)(地)(球)(的)(形)(成)(与)(演)(化)(,)(地)(表)(矿)(物)(转)(化)(太)(阳)(能)(的)(现)(象)(可)(能)(一)(直)(存)(在)(。)(但)(暴)(露)(在)(太)(阳)(光)(下)(地)(球)(表)(面)(的)(天)(然)(矿)(物)(,)(其)(长)(期)(受)(到)(太)(阳)(光)(辐)(射)(的)(响)(应)(机)(制)(,)(却)(一)(直)(未)(被)(认)(识)(与)(利)(用)(。)(此)(外)(,)(除)(了)(全)(球)(陆)(地)(系)(统)(中)(太)(阳)(光)(辐)(射)(区)(域)(外)(,)(类)(地)(行)(星)(的)(表)(面)(也)(具)(有)(这)(种)(“)(镀)(膜)(”)(现)(象)(,)(如)(火)(星)(裸)(露)(岩)(石)(表)(面)(也)(存)(在)(深)(色)(富)(锰)(“)(矿)(物)(膜)(”)(。)

( )( )(“)(在)(生)(物)(光)(合)(作)(用)(系)(统)(形)(成)(过)(程)(中)(,)(‘)(矿)(物)(膜)(’)(的)(‘)(光)(合)(作)(用)(’)(可)(能)(起)(到)(了)(一)(定)(促)(进)(作)(用)(,)(这)(还)(有)(待)(后)(续)(进)(一)(步)(研)(究)(。)(”)(鲁)(安)(怀)(认)(为)(,)(该)(发)(现)(为)(研)(究)(光)(合)(作)(用)(系)(统)(的)(起)(源)(、)(人)(工)(光)(合)(作)(用)(、)(地)(球)(物)(质)(演)(化)(提)(供)(了)(新)(视)(角)(,)(在)(固)(碳)(作)(用)(及)(全)(球)(气)(候)(变)(化)(的)(研)(究)(方)(面)(也)(存)(在)(一)(定)(价)(值)(,)(对)(研)(究)(太)(阳)(系)(中)(类)(地)(行)(星)(表)(面)(无)(机)(矿)(物)(转)(化)(利)(用)(太)(阳)(能)(具)(有)(借)(鉴)(意)(义)(。)

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